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Trends in the leading causes of injury mortality, Australia, Canada, and the United States, 2000-2014

Karin Mack, Angela Clapperton, Alison Macpherson, David Sleet, Donovan Newton, James Murdoch, J. Morag Mackay, Janneke Berecki-Gisolf, Natalie Wilkins, Angela Marr, Michael Ballesteros, Roderick McClure

Abstract


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to highlight the differences in injury rates between populations through a descriptive epidemiological study of population-level trends in injury mortality for the high-income countries of Australia, Canada and the United States.

METHODS: Mortality data were available for the US from 2000 to 2014, and for Canada and Australia from 2000 to 2012. Injury causes were defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision external cause codes, and were grouped into major causes. Rates were direct-method age-adjusted using the US 2000 projected population as the standard age distribution.

RESULTS: US motor vehicle injury mortality rates declined from 2000 to 2014 but remained markedly higher than those of Australia or Canada. In all three countries, fall injury mortality rates increased from 2000 to 2014. US homicide mortality rates declined, but remained higher than those of Australia and Canada. While the US had the lowest suicide rate in 2000, it increased by 24% during 2000–2014, and by 2012 was about 14% higher than that in Australia and Canada. The poisoning mortality rate in the US increased dramatically from 2000 to 2014.

CONCLUSION: Results show marked differences and striking similarities in injury mortality between the countries and within countries over time. The observed trends differed by injury cause category. The substantial differences in injury rates between similarly resourced populations raises important questions about the role of societal-level factors as underlying causes of the differential distribution of injury in our communities.


Keywords


Injury prevention; suicide; global injury; homicide; falls; poisonings; motor vehicle injury; population level change

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/cjph.108.5695